Most farmers follow an annual selective pruning regime in which all dead, broken, and weak canes as well as canes older than three years are removed at ground level in the winter. As part of this regimen, an equal number of 1, 2, and 3-year-old canes are often also left to bare fruit Way, An alternative less management intensive approach is to prune the entire plant to the ground each winter.
The fruit supply is still considered acceptable and because the cymes are larger, this results in efficiency at harvest as well Way, Deep mulch is often used to suppress weeds and grasses. This mimics the riparian forest understory conditions that the tree is accustomed to. We will utilize a combination of shallow rooted perennial bulb and rhizomatous plants like comfrey, day lily, and camas, mulch, and mob grazed chickens to suppress un-desired vegetation.
In addition, in order to maximize space and reduce competing vegetation, plantings will be spaced 6 feet apart on center between bushes 10 feet on-center between trees and shrubs and 14 feet apart between trees.
Agroforestry Market Analysis: Black Elderberry and Ginseng for Oregon’s Willamette Valley
Elderberries reach bearing age in years. The berries are harvested in late August and September when the berries are sufficiently large and have changed to a purplish-black color. Because the fruit does not mature at the same time, several pickings are necessary over a 1 to 2 week period Way, The fruit will need to go into frozen storage if it is not processed into wine or syrup immediately.
Observing that up-to-date market information is lacking for elderberries, Cernusca, Gold, and Godsey carried out a market analysis to shed light on the emerging industry. This model has been used to describe other specialty crop markets such as shiitake mushrooms and chestnuts. Gold et al. Of these respondents, 3 were from Oregon.
According to the analysis, elderberry is a small but growing industry with high growth prospects. Most market participants are involved at multiple levels of the value chain; propagating plants, selling berries, and value adding products. The survey established that because of high demand and few growers, there is room for new producers to enter the market without competition. Many regions had only a single grower. An exception to this is dried berries and flowers, grown for the medicinal industry.
Competition from Europe limits the profitability and demand of this supply chain. However, the fresh berries and other plant parts do still hold promise for the local market. Entry into the industry requires some investment, depending on which product a producer intends to make. When new entrants already have existing processing and bottling infrastructure wine, caning, etc.
However, because there is no mechanical harvesting equipment, elderberry must be hand harvested. This adds a level of intensiveness to every operation. In our case, we do have some established and affordable small scale processing facilities at our disposal but none on-farm.
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This may prove to be a time and financial hurdle. In order to obtain a reasonable return on investment with elderberries it will likely be necessary to value add. Value adding allows a marketer to obtain an increase in price for the same volume of material. Value can be added to raw products in two general ways: by changing the form of the product through processing e. Processing raw materials also allows a producer to sell out of season or over a longer period of time and to ship perishable items to further markets without concern for spoilage.
The elderberry is direct marketed through many avenues including fresh elderberries by the pound, de-stemmed elderberries to wineries, dry flowers and dry and fresh fruit to medicinal companies, berries for pie or jam, different elderberry wines from dry to sweet, pure or blended, medicinals, and other value added products like syrup, fudge, sauces, and soda.
Fresh or frozen elderberries made into value added products and sold locally seem to be the best market advantage for local organic growers given the strong influence of European elderberries on the dried berry market. It takes approximately 1. The average yield of the four selected varieties is approximately 11 pounds per plant Finn et al. A total of bottles from gallons of wine or 1, pints of syrup would need to be produced and sold to achieve this gross amount.
Given the cost and permitting involved in wine production, syrup and sales of fresh berries to wineries is where our operation will begin. We will plan for splitting our production between syrup and fresh berry sales. This is based on two informed assumptions: first that it will be hard to sell over 1, pints of syrup per year at least for quite a few years given the local demand and competition, and second that wine makers have a strong demand for fresh berries.
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The benefit cost ratio is 1. The breakeven point on the project is at year four if cost share payments for hedgerow establishment are included in the budget and at year five if they are not. It occurs naturally throughout Eastern North America in the understory of hardwood forests.
Its range is limited to the south by a need for cold periods and to the west by a need for summer moisture. Taylor, As horticultural information about ginseng has grown, so too has its cultivated range. For example, Persons et al. I have also been involved with ginseng cultivation below Douglas fir Pseudotsuga menzesii and coastal redwood Sequoia sempervirens in Northern California. Ginseng produces a new stem and leaf top every year from a slow growing tuberous root. The semi-mature plant years old has three branches emanating from a single whorl on the main stem. Each branch has a single leaf composed of five leaflets.
The species name, quinquefolius , means five leaved. A flower cluster of small greenish white flowers grows from the center of the whorl and produces kidney shaped berries that grow to a crimson color as they ripen Parsons et al. The berries can be sold for seed to nurseries and growers. The main crop however is the root. The practice of forest farming involves the intentional cultivation of forestlands for specific products. In contrast to other agroforestry practices that introduce trees into non-forested environments, forest farming introduces or cultivates existing crops within an existing forest Chamberlain et al.
Of the myriad forest farming systems, the intentional cultivation of American ginseng stands out as among the most important in North America. American ginseng has been tended in the forests of America since pre-history. Since World War II, forest farmed ginseng, not just wild-crafted but planted and maintained as a long term crop, has steadily increased again in the United States Chamberlain et al. Our project would be classified as a woods cultivated system because it will need to rely on cultivation in order to clear the site of brambles and to improve drainage during the winter season.
The best locations for ginseng are cool, deciduous sites with good air circulation and humus rich soil. When set at the proper spacing and supplied with the soil conditions for optimum growth barring extreme or overly wet weather it is believed that ginseng will be free of most disease problems. The riparian forest on our site stands out as an optimal location, especially with raised beds designed to minimize soil saturation.
In addition, because the Willamette Valley was not glaciated during the last ice age, it lacks the micronutrients typically available in East Coast and Midwest soils. For this reason it will be necessary to amend with approximately pounds of glacial rock dust. It is typically not necessary to fertilize ginseng as long as there is sufficient decomposed leaf litter in the soil Parsons et al. We will be growing in a historic floodplain site, rich in alder, maple, and walnut. It is assumed that soil fertility will be adequate for ginseng cultivation.
In order to allow for good drainage, beds will be run up and down slope and shaped into raised berms crowned at the center with a bed shaper pulled behind a tractor. Seed is sown at 5 seeds per square foot and mulched with leaf litter Parsons et al. Micro-sprayers arrayed to irrigate two 4-foot wide beds at a time should be sufficient to keep the soil moisture up during the dry season.
The Complete Ginseng Grower's Manual
Scott Parsons and Jeanine M. There are two routes for ginseng sales: selling wholesale to exporters and direct marketing. Major ginseng exporters have buyers within the ginseng growing areas of the United States. These buyers will quote prices for sale primarily to the Pacific Rim countries and Hong Kong.
The export market to this region is still good for ginseng and has been for years except during times of war and trade embargoes Davis et al. Buyers are usually eager to purchase roots and can pay cash upon delivery. There is a link between per capita income and ginseng consumption.
For instance, in Taiwan, the average individual consumes over 9 grams of ginseng per year while in China the average individual consumes 2 grams. In affluent Hong Kong, consumption is As China continues to grow its economy, the consumption of ginseng should also continue to grow. Fruit crops Outdoor The government of Ireland figures suggest that 85 mushroom producers turnover 1. Where as field vegetables is more realistic, showing an average turnover of , per farm.
In Botanicals 5, farm units would turnover on average , worth of farm gate materials. When processed co-operatively this figure would rise to about , turnover generated by each family unit or industry employees. The land area of Ireland is 6. In common with trends in all EU member states, farm numbers in Ireland declined continuously over recent decades.